Overview

This unique course provides an essential and authoritative coverage of modern networks and telecommunications systems, including voice, data, TCP/IP, IPv6 networks and Voice over IP (VoIP). Attendees gain a solid foundation in a broad spectrum of current networking technologies through focussed lecture sessions, lab exercises and in-class demonstrations. Comprehensive reference materials reinforce the subjects covered during the course.

Duration

5 days

Audience

  • All Network support staff, regardless of the types of networks they support.
  • All Telecommunications engineers – as a foundation for follow-on training, and also to “fill the gaps” in their areas of expertise.
  • Systems support staff wanting a comprehensive grounding in modern telecommunications and networking technologies.
  • Anyone needing a comprehensive introduction to modern telecommunications and data network technologies.

Prerequisites

Course attendees will ideally have some prior experience in the Telecoms or IT Industries.

Objectives

Demonstrate a solid foundation in the broad spectrum of networking technologies that are essential for today’s network and IT professionals.
Demonstrate a knowledge of key Telecoms, Networking, IP, VoIP and SIP technologies.
Apply practical skills acquired through focussed lab exercises using with high-speed LANs, TCP/IP protocols, DHCP, DNS, IP routers, voice over IP products, IPv6 software, protocol analysers and more.

Content Headings

The evolution of telecommunications
The PSTN, modems, digital links, ISDN, X.25
Advent of computing, IP, Frame Relay, SDH
PABXs, voice mail, ACD and other voice technologies
LANs, intranets, LAN components, cabling
Network Unification

Essential communications principles
Network topologies
Circuit-switched networks
Packet-switched networks
Bps versus Baud
Data rate, bandwidth, throughput, latency, jitter
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Inverse multiplexing, bonding
Statistical Time Division (STDM)

Protocol architectures
The OSI 7-layer model
Common protocol architectures
Function of protocols and layered architectures
IEEE 802 standards model

Public telephony services
Public telephone network
ISDN: PRI, BRI
Cellular mobile networks
Cable networks

Using modems
Modem functions
Asynchronous and synchronous modems
EIA-232, V.24, V.35
Modem standards

ISDN networks
ISDN Basic Rate, Primary Rate and Broad Band services
ISDN structure and terminology
ISDN and the OSI Model
I.430/I.431, layer 1 frames
I.441 ISDN layer 2 LAPD
The ISDN signalling interface
Q.931 signalling operation

WAN technologies
Private Circuits
T1/E1, T3/E3
Overview of Fibre Optic Networking
SONET/SDH
Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Broadband Services and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
DSL Overview
Broadband Evolution and DSL data rates
Discrete MultiTone (DMT)
Types of DSL:
ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+, SDSL, SHDSL, IDSL, HDSL-2, VDSL, G.Lite.
The Local Loop and BT
The anatomy of broadband
The role and typical functions of the DSLAM
MDF, HDF, DSLAM, Splitter
The CPE equipment
Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) options
BT LES
MSAN

What is Computer Networking?
Essentials concepts
Peer-to-peer
File transfer & sharing
Client-server, Thin client

Network Data Transmission
Network packets, frame types
Data transmission
Packet-switching concepts
Packets versus cells

Ethernet and Local Area Networks
IEEE 802 series standards
Ethernet characteristics
CSMA/CD
Frame formats (DIX, 802.3)
MAC addresseses: unicast, multicast, broadcast
10BASET, 100BASETx, Gigabit Ethernet, Metro Ethernet
LAN Repeaters, Bridges
Spanning Tree (STAP)
Layer 2 switches
The role of Routers
Layer 3 switches
Metro Ethernet

Introduction to TCP/IP
The DARPA model
Role of IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP, ARP
Application protocols
IP address, subnet mask
Default gateway

IP Addressing
Class A, B, C, D, E
What is a subnet?
Subnet addressing
Choosing the mask
Defining subnet IDs
Supernetting
Common problems
Resolving IP and MAC addresses
ARP protocol & cache
The arp command
Common problems

IP Operation and Routing
The IP Header
Routing fundamentals
Direct vs Indirect routing
System routing tables
Next Hop
Metrics and reliability
Static vs dynamic routing
D-V protocols: RIP and RIP II
Link State: OSPF, ISIS
The Autonomous System
Border Gateway Protocol, BGP
Exterior BGP
Interior BGP
BGP neighboring and peering
BGP Paths

DHCP
DHCP Lease mechanism
DHCP Operation
Configuring scopes & options

Name Resolution
IP naming schemes
Configuring the HOSTS file
DNS Structure
DNS Principles
DNS Record Types
DNS Operation
Common problems

Ports, TCP and UDP
Port concept
UDP operation
TCP operation
TCP handshake
TCP data transmission and windows
Closing a TCP session

NAT
Principles of NAT
Basic NAT
NAPT/Overloaded NAT

Overview of IPv6
Need for IPv6
IPv6 Header
IPv6 Addressing
ICMPv6
IPv6 and NAT?

Overview of VoIP
Voice and data convergence
Components of a VoIP system
Standards employed in current VoIP solutions
The role of Voice Processing
The speech encoding process
Sampling, Quantisation, Coding, Framing
Silence suppression
Voice coding and compression standards
Adaptive encoding techniques
Coding fax signals
Voice codecs: G.711, G.722, G.721, G.723, G.726, G.723
Assessing voice quality
Mean Opinion Scores (MOS)
Detecting flaws in transmitted voice
Employing MOS ratings for codecs and real networks
Assessing Voice Quality
Measurable components
What to test and measure
P.800 / P.861 recommendations
PESQ

Operating Voice over IP
The issues when operating Voice over IP
Delay, Talker overlap, Echo
Jitter, Packet loss
Out of Order Delivery
The role of Voice Processing and DSP
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
The role of RTP
RTP header in detail
RTP payload types
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)
Conclusions

Introduction to Voice over IP signalling
Overview of signalling in PSTN networks
Overview of private network signalling
The major architectures and standards for Voice over IP
ITU H.323
IETF SIP
MGCP and Megaco/H.248
Cisco SCCP (Skinny)
VOIP in the enterprise
VOIP in PSTN Emulation Service (PES)

ITU / IETF Megaco / H.248
MGCP and Megaco
The Media Gateway Reference Architecture
End-to-End call setup
IETF Megaco
Megaco Terminations and Contexts
Megaco Commands
Megaco Packages
Megaco IP phone Media Gateway

Overview of IP QoS
Classifying IP traffic
Review of the IPv4 Datagram format
IPv4 Service (TOS) field
Precedence bits
DTR(C) bits
Characteristics of RTP media flows
Classifying packets in IPv6 networks
The need for QoS
IP Differentiated Services (Diff-Serv)
Queuing and Scheduling mechanisms
First-In First-Out (FIFO), Strict priority scheduling, Fair Queuing, Weighted-Fair Queuing (WFQ), Class-Based Queuing, Hierarchical Class Based Queuing (CBQ)
Coping with packet loss
Controlling admission
Employing Random Early Detection
Employing traffic shaping
IEEE 802.1p/Q
Operating IP over ATM networks
Overview of MPLS

SIP Overview
SIP design requirements
The development of SIP
SIP and VOIP
SIP Vs. H.323 and H.248/MEGACO
What SIP does
– SIP and Next Generation Networks, NGN
– SIP and mobility
Why we would deploy SIP
The role of SIP within:
– Mobile
– Provider VOIP
– NGN solutions
– Unified Communications
– Multimedia
– SIP based contact centres and using SIP for contact centre hosting
– SIP Trunking
– Mini case studies

SIP Architecture and Components
SIP User Agents
SIP Registrar
SIP Proxies
SIP Location server
SIP Redirect Server
SIP Back to Back User Agent (B2BUA)
SIP PBX

Overview of SIP Operation
The SIP User Agent client and server
The SIP URI
SIP Methods and Responses
SIP message exchange
– SIP Messages involved setting up a simple SIP call
– INVITE method
– 100 Trying
– 180 Ringing
– 200 OK
– ACK
– BYE method
Overview of other widely used SIP messages
– SUBSCRIBE
– OPTIONS
– NOTIFY
– REINVITE
– PUBLISH
– INFO
– PRACK

SDP Description and Role
Role of SDP
Structure of SDP
SDP operation

SIP Registration and Location Servers
Role of the SIP Registration Server
SIP Registration Method
SIP Registration/location to provide roaming/mobility

SIP Proxy
SIP Stateful Proxy
SIP Call Stateful Proxy
SIP Stateless Proxy
SIP Stateful/stateless proxies

SIP URI and DNS
Mapping E.164 dialled digits to SIP using DNS/ENUM
SIP and ENUM

The SIP Redirect Server
SIP REDIRECT methods
Using redirection to route calls
Using redirection to implement mobility
SIP redirection, proxies, registrars, and location services to provide mobility and roaming

Problems of SIP NAT Traversal
Common solutions to SIP NAT Traversal
Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT’s, STUN
Traversal using Relay NAT, TURN
Universal Plug and Play, UPnP
Tunnelling/VPN
Session Border Controller, SBC

SIP In the Cloud
SIP Gateways
SIP integration with the PSTN/ISDN
SIPI and SS7 ISUP
SIP and H.248/Megaco
SIP and H.225/H245/H.323
SIP and MPLS/QOS
SIP Trunking
Hosted SIP PBX
Hosted SIP Conferencing
Hosted SIP based contact centre

Potential threats to SIP
Registration Hijacking
Impersonating a Server
Tampering with Message Bodies
Tearing Down Sessions
Denial of Service and Amplification

Securing SIP
Transport and Network Layer Security
SIPS URI Scheme
SIP Method Authentication
Registration
Interdomain Requests
Peer-to-Peer Requests
DoS Protection
HTTP Digest
S/MIME
TLS

SIP Solutions and Capacity Planning
Design considerations when deploying SIP solutions
Feature requirements
– Matching customer requirement to cloud offering
– Identifying the Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) requirements
– Server implementation
Security and resilience of SIP servers
Security to the Cloud
Interconnection and communication with other severs such as DNS, and RADIUS/DIAMETER

Connecting to the Cloud
SIP based VOIP Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s)
Sizing VOIP voice channel capacity
Impact of VOIP on data applications
Translating Erlangs and Grade of Service (GOS) into VOIP channel capacity
Impact of VOIP QOS on Grade of Service, GOS
Concept of Connection Admissions Control, CAC/VCAC
SIP and QOS
– Possible QOS signalling within SIP
– Enforcing the GOS from the SIP servers
Determining the bandwidth requirements for SIP signalling