Overview

This unique, fast-track course has been designed to meet the needs of staff wanting a broad understanding of a range of modern wireless communications systems and networks. Delegates learn in detail how radio communications work, and examine the challenges and new developments in fundamental wireless technologies.

Duration

5 days

Audience

  • Everyone wanting a solid understanding of the broad range of wireless communications systems used around the World today.
  • Staff responsible for evaluating wireless systems or equipment
  • Technical sales and marketing professionals
  • Wireless communications engineers
  • Mobile communications engineers
  • Radio engineers
  • Developers of wireless products and services

Prerequisites

Attendees should have some prior understanding of telecommunications or data network principlesbefore attending the course.

Objectives

Understand deep concepts of RF communications including signal propagation, dB, RF calculations, RF link budgets, RF planning.
Understand the all current modulation, coding, multiplexing, forward error correction, puncturing, OFDM and spread spectrum technologies.
Understand antenna design and operation including advanced antenna systems.
Describe the multiple access schemes used in modern wireless networks, including FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM and OFDMA.
Describe the architecture and operation of GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, HSPA, LTE, LTE-A and 5G systems.
Describe the components, architecture and operation of IoT technologies including LoRa, LoRaWAN, LTE-M, NB-IoT, Sigfox and more.
Describe the architecture and operation of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and NFC -based systems.
Understand the principles of Satellite Communications systems, services, link budgets and equipment.

Content Headings

Day 1

Overview of RF and wireless systems
Early radio communications systems
1G NMT, Analogue Mobile Phone System, AMPS, DAMPS
2G / GSM, GPRS
3G / UMTS, HSPA, HSDPA, HSUPA
4G / LTE and LTE-A, LTE Advanced, LTE Advanced Pro, LTE IoT, NB-IoT, LTE-M
5G SA and NSA, 5G NR FR2, eMBB
5G M2M, mMTC, URLLC, Cat-M1
LPWA (Low Power Wide Area Wireless) and LPWAN
IEEE 802.11 WiFi, 802.11n WiFi 4, 802.11ac WiFi 5, 802.11ax WiFi 6
IEEE 802.11ad WiGig
IEEE 802.11ah WiFi HaLow
IEEE 802.11af White-Fi / SuperFi
IEEE 802.15.1, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
IEEE 802.15.4, 802.15.4e, ZigBee Smart, 802.15.4g
Z-Wave
Weightless
HomePlug GP
G.9959
WirelessHART
DASH7
ANT and ANT+
LoRa and LoRaWAN
Symphony Link
Sigfox
Wi-SUN FAN
Ingenu RPMA
ISA100.11a
DigiMesh
DECT / ULE
NFC (Near Field Communications)
Terrestrial microwave systems
Trunk Mobile communications, MPT1327, TETRAPOL, TETRA, BT Airwave, BT Quadrant
Satellite communications, VSAT, SpaceX Starlink

Essential principles of radio communications
Electromagnetic radiation
Review of RF bands and Frequencies
Radio propagation principles
RF propagation
Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction, Absorption
Multipath effects and fading
RF power, deciBel dB, dB concepts
dBm, dBi, dBd
EIRP and ERP
Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)
Fresnel zone
Other path loss factors
Link Budget concepts, formulas, calculations
Received Signal Strength and RSSI
Receiver Sensitivity
Sources of RF noise and RF interference
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
Shannon Hartley forumla, maximum information rates
Delay spread, ISI
Frequency-selective fading

Radio Frequency Equipment and Transmissions
The basics of radio
Radio antennas
– Isotropic and Dipole
– Directional and semi-directional antennas
– Beamforming and MIMO Antennas
Spread Spectrum technologies: FHSS, DSSS, OFDM
RF channels
Channel reuse
Interference
Common Causes of RF Interference
Signal Range

Modulation and Performance
Comparison of modulation techniques
Types of modulators and demodulators
BPSK, QPSK, MPSK, pi/4-QPSK
QAM, 64-QAM, 256-QAM
Antenna and space diversity
Adjacent channel interference

Information Theory
Shannon’s equation
Why code?
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Coding Techniques
Block and Reed-Solomon coding
Interleaving
Convolutional coding
Turbo coding

Day 2

Fundamental Multiple Access Schemes
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
OFDM
OFDMA

Wireless Network Architectures
Wireless network infrastructures
Overlay Networks – the Global Goal
Wireless Networks vs Fixed Networks
Wireless Communications Categorisation
Defining 1G, 2G, 3G, 2.5G, 2.75G, 4G and 5G services
Modern wireless systems: overview of development
World-wide Digital Cordless Telecommunications Standards
Wireless Communications Technologies Comparison
Wireless LANs
Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN)
Point-to-Point ad MultiPoint wireless links

Mobile Radio System Fundamentals
Signal Strength vs Range
Cellular Principles
Co-Channel Interference
Frequency Re-use
Cell Sizes
Cells, Clusters and Channels
Cell Splitting
Mobile station handover
Location Areas and Mobility Management (MM)
Power Control
The Handover process
Employing Concentric Cells
Issues at street junctions

Fundamentals of GSM
GSM features and services
The GSM Architecture
GSM in operation
Attaching to the network
GSM MO and MT calls
Overview of the GSM Air Interface
Circuit-Switched Data (CSD)
Short Message Service (SMS)

Fundamentals of GPRS
What is GPRS?
How is GPRS added to GSM networks?
GPRS data rates
GPRS network architecture
GPRS operation
GPRS protocol architecture
GPRS multiframe structure
GPRS Air Interface
GPRS logical channels
EDGE and E-GPRS

Day 3

Fundamentals of 3G and UMTS
3GPP
Spectrum Allocation
Air Interface
Understanding CDMA
Scrambling Codes
Power Control Mechanisms
Multiple Access using CDMA
WCDMA Coverage and Ec/No
Inter-Cell Interference
Handover Types
Radio Resource Connected Mode States
Network Architecture
Migration to IP
Channels on the Air Interface
Core Network Evolution

High Speed packet Access and HSPA+
R5 High Speed Packet Access
HSDPA Technology Changes to UMTS
Power Utilisation
Modulation
Coding Scheme
Hybrid ARQ with Soft Combining
New Logical Channels
HSDPA Enhancements
Bit Rates – HSUPA
Soft Handover
Refarming GSM 900 bands

Fundamentals of LTE and LTE Advanced
Goals of LTE
Performance Aims and Objectives
LTE Terminology
LTE Architectural Concepts
E-UTRAN architecture and interfaces
New network elements
– enodeB
– MME functionality
– S-GW functionality
– PDN-GW functionality
– PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function) Server
LTE Nodes and Interfaces
Frequency bands for LTE
LTE and MIMO
Space Time Diversity Coding and Spatial Multiplexing
STBC and SFBC
OFDM Downlink
SC-FDMA Uplink
CP
LTE Cell Search Procedure
LTE Handovers
LTE Terminal Classes
Recent LTE network trials
Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

Release 10 LTE Advanced
Carrier Aggregation (CA)
MIMO Antennas – Releases 8/9
Release 10 Antennas
Relay Node

Day 4

5G Concepts and Drivers
5G Standardisation
5G Network Architecture
Design Objectives
5G use of RF spectrum
New Radio (NR) and NG-RAN
NG-RAN architecture
NR and NG-RAN Features
Dual connectivity
Small cells
Increased spectrum
Radio enhancements
Beam Forming and Steering
Cloud RAN
5G RAN deployment options

5G Core Network Architecture
PDU sessions
Core Network elements
Network Virtualization
Network Slicing

5G Initial Procedures
Finding the network
Network Registration

Using the 5G Network
Idle and Connected Mode
Establishing a PDU session
Moving to Idle
Getting connected – Service Request
Paging

5G Mobility
Tracking Area Updates
Handovers
Roaming

5G and IoT
IoT devices
Radio modules
SIM, eSIM and Remote SIM Provisioning
Radio Access Network enhancements
EC-GSM IoT
LTE-M
NB-IoT
E-to-E Security
Latest 5G developments

Fundamentals of TETRA
Introduction to trunking
Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA)
Features of TETRA technology
TETRA TDMA basics
TETRA Architecture and Components: BS, LSC, MSC, LR, MT, TE, NT
Voice and Data services
Status, and Short Data Service (SDS)
Direct Mode Operation (DMO)

802.11 / Wi-Fi Networks and Protocols
Radio Frequency (RF) Bands
Role of the Wi-Fi Alliance™ and their standards
Use of the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands
The IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Standards
802.11b DSSS/HR, 802.11g ERP, 802.11a OFDM
802.11n HT (WiFi 4) at 2.4GHz and 5GHz
VHT 802.11ac WiFi 5, HE 802.11ax WiFi 6
Infrastructure vs Ad-hoc Networks
Service Sets: IBSS, BSS, BSSID, ESS, SSID / ESSID
The Service Set Identifier (SSID)
Access Points (APs)
Wireless LAN Clients and Adapters
802.11 PHY Layers
Data Rates and Ranges, ARS / DRS
802.11 MAC Layer Operation
How devices Scan for WiFi networks
Authentication and Association with an AP
Working with 802.11 / Wi-Fi equipment

Wi-Fi Security
Available security solutions
Review of Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
Issues with MAC address filtering
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) v1.0
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
WPA and Authentication
802.11i / WPA v2, AES, CCMP
The Generic 802.1x/EAP process and EAP types
Auditing Wi-Fi Security

Day 5

802.11ad / WiGig
WiGig PHY layer
Applications for WiGig

Internet of Things (IoT)
IoT Applications
Including: Telematics, SCADA, Smart Grid, Smart City, SCP, CSL, Smart Agriculture, Smart Homes
Comparison of enabling technologies for IoT
Short-range wireless
Medium-range wireless
Long-range wireless
LPWAN, U-LPWAN, L-LPWAN
LoRa and LoRaWAN
Sigfox
Wi-SUN FAN
Weightless
Ingenu RPMA
Z-Wave
6LowPAN and Thread
UWB
NFC
ANT+

802.11ah and Wi-Fi HaLow
802.11ah PHY and MAC Layers
Applications for 802.11ah

LoRa and LoRaWAN
Introduction to IoT and LPWAN
What are LoRa and LoRaWAN?
LoRa and LoRaWAN networks
Range vs Power
Data rates
LoRa Physical Layer
LoRaWAN protocol stack
Rules and regulations
Operating LoRa in Europe, USA and other regions
ETSI Sub bands 863-870
Changing frequencies for every transmission
Dwell time, hop time
Modulation Types
Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS)
Symbols, Chirps, Spreading Factor, Bit Rate

LoRaWAN Specifications
LoRaWAN devices and products
Power Consumption
Radio Modulation
Localisation
Firmware Updates Over-the-Air (FUOTA)
LoRaWan packet format
LoRaWAN Security
General LoRaWAN considerations
The Things Network restrictions
Duty cycle / time on air (ToA)
LoRaWAN Device Classes

Fundamentals of Bluetooth
Bluetooth Applications
Bluetooth Profiles
Bluetooth Standards
How does Bluetooth work?
– RF characteristics, Piconet, Scatternet, Master/Slave
– Bluetooth Protocol Architecture, SCO and ACK Links
– Logical Channels, Access Procedures
– Error Correction, Flow Control, Connection States
– Bluetooth security
Bluetooth versions 1.2, 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2
Bluetooth Smart (BLE)

ZigBee, RFID and Near Field Communications (NFC)
IEEE 802.15 standards
802.15.4 and the ZigBee Alliance
Defining ZigBee Technology
Target Applications for ZigBee
ZigBee Topology Models
IEEE 802.15.4 Architecture and Operation

RFID
Standards
Tag Types
Near Field Communications (NFC)
Far Field Devices
RFID Frequency Bands
EPC Product Codes
RFID Standards

Ultra Wideband (UWB)
UWB Theory
UWB Technology
UWB Antenna systems
UWB Applications

Optical Wireless Communication (OWC)
Introduction to Li-Fi
Commercial products
Current status of Li-Fi

Satellite Communications
Satellites, Orbits: LEO, MEO, GEO, HEO
Frequencies: L, S, C, X, Ku, Ka
Dishes and Mounts
Alignment and Adjustment
Indoor and Outdoor equipment
Basics of Satellite Link Budget calculations
Sample Available Services and Markets